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greatviewsofthegiantplanet.Jupiterhasnosolidsurfacethatwecanviewbutitscloudtopsvaryincolourandpattern.Turningyourbinocularsorsmalltelescopetowardtheplanetwillrevealhorizontalbandsorbeltsoflightanddarkcoloursandoccasionallight-colouredcirclesandovals.EachofthesefeaturesisaresultofturbulentwindsandstormsinJupiterx19satmospherestirringupmixturesofmethaneammoniaheliumandhydro-gen.AlargefeatureknownastheGreatRedSpotisreallyagiantcyclonethathasbeenvisiblefor250yearsNotquiteasredasitusedtobethisstormisstillobviousasitscootsacrossthefaceoftherapidlyrotatingplanet.Whilespacecrafthaveor-bitedJupiterandIhaveviewedcountlessphotographsonthewebseeingtheGreatRedSpotformyselfmakesitmorereal.About400yearsagoGalileobecametherstpersontoturnatelescopetowardJupiter.Withaninstrumentlesspowerfulthanourtypicaldepartment-storebin-ocularshisobservationsofJupiterandinparticulartheplanetx19sfourlargestmoonskickedoffarevolutioninthoughtthatstillreverberatestoday.GalileorstnoticedthreeorfourlittlestarsnearJupiter.Onsubsequenteveningshenoticedthatthesex1cstarsx1dcontinuedtostayinalignmentandmoreoverseemedtobecirclingtheplan-et.GalileopublishedhisobservationsandanalysisconcludingthatthestarsweremoonsorbitingJupiterandthatthereforenotallthingscircledtheEarthx14verymuchindisagreementwiththewidelyacceptedbeliefsofthetime.Checkoutthesemoonsforyourself.Searchthewebforx1cJupitermoonspositionx1dtorevealnu-meroustoolsforidentifyingthemoons.Therex19sevenanappforyourphoneJupiterwasthekingofallthegodstotheRomansgodoftheskyandthunder.TotheGreekshewasknownasZeusrulingoverallfromMountOlympus.Lin-guisticresearchimpliesthatboththesenamesderivefromamoreancientIndo-Europeanwordx14andperhapsdeityx14meaningx1cskygod.x1dItx19snowondertheancientsnamedthisplanetaftertheirgreatestgodasitisthebrightestplanetthatremainsvisibleallnight.Venuscanbemorebrilliantbutappearsonlyasamorningoreveningx1cstarx1ditsorbitbeingnearertheSunthanEarthx19s.WhileJupiterglowsintheeastinSep-temberVenusisbrightinthewesternskyatsunset.ShegetsswallowedupbythesuninearlyOctoberonlytoreturnintheeastasamorningstarinmid-November.Marsisbarelyvisibleverylowintheeveningsouth-westernskybutitsruddyglowdimin-ishesasEarthpullsaheadinitsorbit.BeingsobrightJupitercanbeobservedonanyeveningbutfaintstarsandothercelestialobjectsarebetterviewednearthedatesofthenewmoonx14Sept.8Oct.7andNov.6.FullmooneveningsoccuronSept.23Oct.23andNov.21.Lunarob-serverswillgettheirbestviewsofmoun-tainsandcratersnearthedatesofrst-andlast-quarterphases.Autumnofciallybeginswiththeequi-noxonSept.23at1109EDT.DaylighttimeendsonSundaymorningNov.7sodonx19tforgetthatclocksx1cfallbackx1dthen.ClearskiesLSLNeilKinnearanavidsailorandamateurastronomerisaphotographerwholivesnearSutton.DuringtheearlyautumnheandhiswifephotographerLesleyChungcanoftenbefoundaboardtheirboatStardust.starchartneilkinnearx8Lakex8Simcoex8Livingx8x8Autumnx82010x8x8x813Lx1dkx1bfx19ontstarrynightsAstherstfrostx19srimecrystallizesonLakeSimcoex19sfadingwildDowersandbrighteveningsgivewaytoearlysunsetsJupiterholdscourtintheheavens.Closerandvisiblylargerthanatanytimesince1949themightyplanetandhisatten-dantmoonsoffergreatobservingopportunitiesthisautumn.Jupiterrisesbrightandyellowjustsouthofeastatabout9p.m.asSeptemberbeginsandremainsvisibleallnight.ThroughOctoberandNovemberthishard-to-missbeaconrisesalittleearliereachnightandiswellupinthesouth-southeastatsunsetbytheendofNovember.OnSept.21Jupiterreachesx1coppositionx1ddirectlyoppositethesunintheskyandbycoincidencenearsitsclosestapproachtothesunintheplanetx19s12-yearorbit.ThesetwofactorscombinesothatJupiterappearslargerthanitwillforanother12years.TakeadvantageofthisopportunityforGalileox19sobservationsofJupiteranditsfourlargestmoonsbeganarevolutioninthoughtByNex10LKx10NNearJupiterrulestheheavensLEAPINGDOLPHINSWhilx1btx1dkingx1dbx19x1bx1dkfx19omJupitx1bx19-wx1dtchingthisfx1dllchx1bckoutm-fx1dvoux19itx1bx1clittlx1bx1dconstx1bllx1dtionx14Dx1blphinusthx1bDolphin.Shx1dpx1bdlikx1bx1ddix1dmondoffoux19stx1dx19sfox19thx1bbod-x1dndonx1box19twox1bxtx19x1dfox19thx1btx1dil-oux19llnditonthx1bx1bdgx1bofthx1bMilk-Wx1d-bx1btwx1bx1bnthx1bSummx1bx19Tx19ix1dnglx1bofDx1bnx1bbVx1bgx1dx1dndaltx1dix19x1dndthx1bgx19x1bx1dtsqux1dx19x1bofPx1bgx1dsus.Oncx1b-oux19vx1bnoticx1bdDx1blphinusx19sdistinctivx1bshx1dpx1b-oux19llbx1bx1dblx1btosx1d-x1cB-Jovx1bx10thinkx10x19vx1bgotitx1dFa3x10N4SO5T6ONSePT.15aT11P.M.O3T.15aT9P.M.NOV.15aT6P.M.